Have ubiquity, which most often occurs in the form of epidemiological outbreaks. The disease can be due to all sorts of fungi species Trichophyton and Microsporum.
Clinical микозов of the scalp given environment, the pathogen, the method of location of elements of the mushroom in the hair and the degree of manifestation of an inflammatory reaction that develops in the skin in response to the introduction of fungus.
The surface disease of the scalp usually occurs in children aged 6 to 10 years, at least – from 1 to 5 years and from 11 to 15 years of age. Many patients in the period of puberty, the infection has the tendency to self-resolution. If this does not happen, then occurs the so-called chronic disease of the scalp, seen mainly in adult women.
The source of infection, when the surface of the disease of the scalp are the sick people and things, with which he came in contact (hats, scarves, dies, brushes, scissors, bed linen and т. п.).
Clinical picture. On the scalp are formed the foci of weak express wash and a slight peeling of the skin, having a wrong shape is round and diffuse vague borders. The most characteristic symptom is the thinning of hair in the home defeat, which is a result of the loss. Some hairs break in the level 2-3 mm above the surface of the skin and have the appearance of hemp color gray; other break directly on the output of their mouths the hair follicle, and have the appearance of "black spots". It is in the broken so hair is easier to discover the causative agent of the disease.
Erythemal-bubble shape is characterized by the appearance of scattered, not very drastically limited pink boards, a little above the level of the skin, and with the smaller bubbles. Then, a small scaling, and blisters appear small clear chips. The hair to break at the level of the surface of the skin.
Impetigious form occurs in cases where the surface disease of the scalp is complicated by secondary infection. The affected skin of the scalp along the crust, and very much resemble impetigo.
Chronic "black spotted" disease of the scalp it is usually the continuation of the surface of the disease of childhood, after the period of puberty. The disease of the scalp accepts chronic for almost exclusively in adult women, which, as a rule, there are endogenous and predispose factors: dysfunction of sexual glands, thyroid gland, vegetative disorder, гиповитаминозы and т. п.
The disease occurs most off imperceptibly for the patient, and others. Many times, the reason for the survey of adult women is the emergence of a family of sick children or grandchildren.
In some sections marked outbreaks of bark borders blurred, and with the debris of the hair. Sometimes, the disease is expressed in the form of small spots with a dense crust at the opening of the follicle. More патогномоничным clinical symptomatic are поломанные at the level of the skin, hair, the so – called "black spots".
It is extremely rare for the surface disease of the scalp acquires the character of an inflammatory process, with the advent of the пустул, infiltrates.
Isolated from a chronic disease of the scalp occurs very rarely. Usually, the infection, the process is common to nature and, coupled with the defeat of the scalp are observed foci to soften the skin of the trunk, palms of hands, soles of the feet.
The disease of the scalp is celebrated almost exclusively in children, sick adults represent only 10% to 12%. The infection of children it occurs more frequently in age from 1 to 13, at least 15 years. The period of puberty, all patients come to spontaneous recovery.
The disease is extremely contagious disease, such as for children and for animals; in the gardens of groups (schools, nurseries, day-care centers) can occur in the form of epidemiological outbreaks.
The sources of infection and routes of transmission of the infection to the disease, caused by fungi, such as the surface of diseases of the scalp. The main sources of infection zoo mushrooms are sick of dogs and cats.
The clinical manifestations of the disease develop after a period of incubation, which lasts on average from 4 to 6 without.
Around the hair follicle is formed point, which gradually increases in size, capturing all the major areas of the skin of the scalp. Inflammatory changes in the home defeat expressed weak. Sometimes, at the beginning of the disease can occur the appearance of bubbles with sulfur content, places covered with fries.
At the height of its development the disease is characterized by the presence of the scalp 1-2 large, correctly rounded, or oval, sharply limited, does not have a tendency to the fusion of the lesions. The skin in the area of these outbreaks slightly отечна and densely covered in grey-white one-touch (as you would flour). All hair services defeat of 4-6 mm in height above the level of the skin and look briefly topiary, there are patches of baldness. On the edge of the focuses of defeat, the hair is easily removed. Extracted hair at the base covered pasty white and the protective cover, due to which they resemble the wand of glass, the first, one in the glue and then in fine sand.
Favus – a chronic fungal disease begins in childhood and, not having the propensity to self-treatment, many times, the training of adults. Favus mainly affect the part of the head, approximately 20% of the cases, the process involved nails and much less – smooth skin.
The main causative agent for Favus is Trichophyton schonleinii.
The source of infection, when Favus is a sick person, at least – sick animals (mouse, cat).
Infection Favus contribute to the poor washing conditions, non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene, poor food, as well as some practices, for example, a constant use of hats for religious and other reasons.
Clinical Favus is the sum of the three main symptoms:
- education on specific skin for Favus morphological elements itching of the skin, the so-called shields-sculling, which represents a clears the mushroom culture;
- the defeat of hair fall;
- the formation of scar atrophy, and resistant to hair loss on the head.
Established sculling have a view of the dry formations of bright yellow color, which comes out of the hair. With a long period of illness, without the treatment of sculling fuse together, forming a solid yellowish bark, reminiscent of a baked honey honeycomb (hence the name favus, – honeycomb). sculling firmly fixed to the skin, with great difficulty, we take the individual loose parts, leaving inflamed bright pink, more soft, slightly damp soil erosion.
On the scalp, in addition to typical sculling form, is a variation Favus. Rarely can occur гнойная form of the disease.
The deep disease of the scalp it is mostly caused by zoophilic trichophytons.
Infection of people occurs most often by direct contact with sick animals, at least through a variety of items, in which there are dead mushroom hair and the scales of sick animals. Less healthy people infected with patients of a deeper disease.
The infiltration may reach the size of 6-8 cm of diameter, has a bright red or blue coloring and sharply defined limits. The number of foci can reach 5-6. The surface infiltrates dotted with a large number of deep пустул and hair. Externally, the same hair, often seem to loose the crust due to a profound inflammation purulent.
Sometimes, the disease begins with the appearance of bubbles, пустул or peeling of the skin.
The patients complain more or less strong pain in the homes of the defeat. By suction the degradation products of fungi and лизированных tissue comes the intoxication of the organism of the patient: there is a sense of malaise разбитости, headache, increases body temperature, sometimes up to 38-39 °C, develops regional lymphadenitis.
Deep is the disease is severe, prone to resolution of 2-3 months of age. after сформирования infiltrates. The healing happens through healing, that if extensive services leads to a vigorous male pattern baldness.