Psoriasis is a non-infectious disease, that they are surprised with the epidermis and its appendages: hair, nails". The external manifestations are irritation and peeling of the skin, where it happened the second name of the pathology – flake ringworm. It is characterized by the alternation of periods of exacerbation with periods of relative stability or remission. Because the occurrence of the disease is not caused by micro-organisms, it is not contagious in nature and is not contagious. Health statistics, states that from this disease suffers about 3-4% of the population. Psoriasis may manifest in persons of any age, but the "preferred" of young people: more than 70% of the patients, it is detected under the age of 18-23 years.
For that appears to psoriasis?
Psoriasis is an abnormal reaction of the body to exposure to external stimuli, which resulted in distinct areas of the body occurs the rapid extinction of the top layer of the skin. The Normal duration of the cycle of division and subsequent maturation of the cells is 21-28 days, in the case of psoriasis, the period is reduced up to 3-5 days. Today, most experts tend to consider the psoriasis multifactoriais disease etiology hereditary.
There are several theories about the origin of the disease. According to the first, there are two types of stripping:
- the first is the consequence of a malfunction of the immune system attacks the skin and transmitted by inheritance, when he appeared with a young age;
- the second is to find out after 40 years of age, affects the joints, nails, is not genetically conventional, and is not caused by a problem in host defense.
The defenders of other theories assert that the only factor that contributes to the development of psoriasis, are the disorders of immunity, which are caused by a wide variety of factors:
- infectious diseases;
- irrational energy;
- hot climatic conditions;
- the abuse of alcohol.
According to this theory of flake ringworm classified as the system of the disease and can spread to the internal organs, the joints, other tissues. When the defeat of the joints, develops called psoriatic arthritis, which suffer from the small joints of brushes, stop.
The appearance of the disease is favoured, the following factors:
- dry skin thin;
- the constant contact with the irritant reagent: household cleaning products, alcohol, solvents, cosmetics;
- the excess of hygiene, which leads to the disruption of the protective barrier the skin's natural;
- smoking, consumption of drugs or alcohol (impairment of the vascularity and nutrition of the skin);
- taking certain medicines;
- fungal and bacterial infections;
- climate change in the region;
- the stress;
- the use of sharp, acid products, chocolate;
- an allergic condition;
- the injury.
Classification of the disease
As it begins to psoriasis, how it manifests, what is the impact on the body – all these moments are specific to a subset of a pathology. Nowadays there are several classifications of the disease. One of the most common divides psoriasis in two variations:
Nepustuleznaya (or simple) way is a different asthma chronic stable disease. To this group belongs, and erythrodermic psoriasis, the main symptom of which is the loss of the greater part of the skin.
pustular type include:
- of annularis pustules;
- psoriasis Barbera;
- psoriasis background Tsimbusha;
- psoriasis of the palms of the hands and soles.
A category are:
- the drug-induced form;
- psoriasis Napkina;
- "inverse psoriasis" (the evolution of the bending surfaces).
Depending on the location of the pathological process and characteristics of the manifestation of the first symptoms of psoriasis include:
- psoriasis of the scalp;
- psoriasis of the skin of the face;
- of the feet;
- of the joints;
- nail (onychodystrophy);
- the psoriatic arthritis;
- psoriatic erythroderma.
Psoriasis — pathology systemic, that, in addition to spread over the epidermis and the nails, can affect your spine, the area of the joints, tendons, immune, endocrine, nervous. Many times injury occurs in the liver, kidney, thyroid.
The first symptoms of psoriasis are:
- general weakness;
- the feeling of chronic fatigue;
- depressed state or depression.
Because of the integrated effects of pathology on the body of professionals will be more willing to talk about psoriatic disease.
And, still, the main clinic associated with the defeat of certain regions of the skin of the integument. One of the first manifestations is the appearance of covered psoriatic plaques (scales) rounding papules bright red or pink color. Their characteristic feature — the layout of the scalp, flexural surfaces, lumbar spine, at least – of the genital mucous. Size papules in the early stages is more than a few millimetres, and can reach up to 10 and more cm. Characteristic of acne becomes the basis for the separation of the disease into the following types:
- the map, in which the elements less pinhead;
- guttate – papules so remember to wait for the deliverance of god, and correspond to the dimensions of the cremore lenticulae grains;
- nummular – plates with rounded edges reach 5 mm in diameter.
Sometimes, the rash is arcuate, in the form of rings or garlands, map invalid edge.
The top layer of the papules are easily detachment of the belt from the plate, educated corneum of the epidermis. Initially, the flakes formed in the central part of the plate, gradually spreading to the outside. Of course loose sight boosted by the presence of Horny cells air-filled periods. Sometimes, around items is formed a pink ring that represents the area of platelet growth and of distribution of inflammation. The surrounding skin remains in the unchanged state.
When you remove the plaque detected in the bright surface, bright red color, formed capillaries with very attenuatum walls, covered from top is very thin film. The capillaries are detected due to a failure of normal construction of the top layer of the skin and significant thinning. The change in the structure of the skin occurs as a result of the maturation of the cells of keratinocytes, which leads to the inability of their normal differentiation.
Psoriasis of the scalp
The main symptom of psoriasis in head is the appearance, visibly towering over the surrounding skin, psoriatic plaques. They thoroughly covered close hair scales. To do this, the hair does not become involved in a pathological process. With located under the hair zone of precipitation may spread to the smooth skin, the area of the neck, behind the ears. This process is driven by the rapid division of keratinocytes in the injured area.
The symptoms of psoriasis hands and feet
This form of depriving causes significant thickening of the horny layer of the skin in the areas. The epidermis becomes rough and covered with cracks. The cause is in the intense cell division (playback speed up to 8 times higher than normal) and the retention on the surface. In the initial phase on the skin pustules are formed with the content, which at the beginning is transparent, but gradually becomes white. With the time, form dark scars. In the majority of cases, the disease manifests itself at the same time the feet and the palms of the hands, but sometimes catch only occur in the same area. When the process of disseminating to the back of the hands speaking in another form of psoriasis (not the Palmar-plantar).
The symptoms of psoriasis of the nails
How it manifests itself psoriasis of the nails? For this type of disease is typical of a variety of symptoms. Are observed mainly two types of injuries of lps:
- by type of thimbles, in which the nail is covered with small air when you fly, approaching the marks of the needle;
- by type of onychomycosis – rust fabrics that remind you of the nail fungus: the nail will change color, visibly thicken and begin to flake. Through the plate which you can distinguish surrounded reddish, the rim psoriatic papula, like the oil stain.
The dependence of the symptoms of the disease
The manifestations of psoriasis vary depending on the season and on the stage. In many patients, he noted, the "winter" type of disease, in which periods of exacerbation at the end of autumn or in winter. During the hottest season of the year, thanks to the intensity of ultraviolet light reaches improvement. "Saving" the type is very rare. Along the pathology, there are three stages:
- Progressing, in which constantly appear for new items, it is clamped to an increase in already existing boards, the presence of around them the pink zone, a strong peeling, itching.
- Fixed – if the growth of papules stops, new skin rashes are not formed, there were small folds in the top layer of skin, around the plates.
- retrogressive – peeling, missing, platelets begin to disappear, the process of attenuation of a disease in your place are the portions with the increased pigmentation.
The symptoms of psoriasis in children
The symptoms of psoriasis in children have some differences, especially of infants. The first symptoms are not typical. In the folds of the skin appears outlined area of redness, which is accompanied by maceration and gradual ita decorticavit of the horny layer (starts from the periphery). Superficially, this is similar eczematid, diaper rash or thrush. Small children rashes keep on appearing are not characteristic for psoriasis local (on the skin of the face, mucosa, genital, natural folds of the skin). Many times the precipitation first develops in the head, under the hair. Here are formed from the accumulation of crusts in the moderate infiltration. Another common phase location of acne are the areas of the skin exposed to the constant friction of the clothes or affected aggressive medicines.
Mobilize in the body papules, gradually merging into the name tag with contours incorrect. Their dimensions may vary from cremore lenticulae grain up to children's hands. When tear-shape papular elements have small dimensions. They appear suddenly, quickly covering his body, the face, the neck, the fibrous part of the head and extensoris indicis area of the hands and feet.
Psoriasis in children is different long-lasting and resistant to current. The only exception is the guttate type, which are characteristically more easily during long periods of remission. As in the case of adults, in the development of the disease, there are three-phase, or phase.
- The progressive appear small itchy papules with a rim of peripheral growth, red in color. A feature of the symptomatology in infants age is weak expression map of bleeding, the terminal of the film and the phenomenon stearic the point. In older children are the lymph nodes, sometimes they become painful, especially when erythroderma and exudative psoriasis).
- When you fixed the phase of peripheral growth stops, there occurs a flattening of the infiltration in the center of the plate and the reduction of the shell.
- A regressive phase is characterized resorption elements of acne. Sometimes, around them, one can observe the characteristic depigmented frame. Areas of an ancient eruption lose the pigment or, on the contrary, are exposed to hyperpigmentation. The lymph nodes become soft and diminish in size.
Diffuse foci of lesions observed on the palms and soles of the feet of the child. Are indicated also the cracks and the infiltration of the skin. In the case of common forms of dermatosis are surprised with the nails: they are formed of the dispersion of pressure or longitudinal grooves. Severe psoriasis leads to deformation of the nails.
Pustular psoriasis – a rarity of children. She can gather with the adults. For this disease is typical hard with a noticeable deterioration of the state and the increase of the temperature.
arthropathic changes in childhood are not. In rare cases the small patients indicate the presence of joint pain.